Turkmenistan- Key Country Facts
Official name: Turkmenistan
Location: Turkmenistan is situated in Central Asia; the Caspian Sea is washed in the west. Turkmenistan borders on land with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran, as well as on the sea with Russia and Azerbaijan. It has little access to the ocean of the earth. There are mostly plains; almost 80 per cent of the ground is covered by Kara-Kum sands, one of the greatest deserts in the world. The Kopetdag Mountains, situated in the south of the country, are the natural frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran.
Total: 491 200 sq km
Percentage of water surface: 4,9%
Land borders: 3736 km
744 km with Afghanistan, 992 km with Iran, 379 km with Kazakhstan, 1621 km with Uzbekistan
Population: 5,663 millions (as of 2016)
Ashgabat: 1,003 678
Language: Turkmen is the official language of the region. It belongs to the Turkish Language Community. Besides Turkmenistan, native speakers of this language can also be found in Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Russia (Stavropol region). The Turkmen alphabet is Latin based and consisting of 30 letters; there are also several words borrowed from Russian. There are over 30 dialects belonging to the ethnic Turkmen groups: Teke (central part of Turkmenistan), Jomud (western and northern regions), Ersarin (eastern regions along Amu-Darya), Salyr (Serakhs bordering Iran), Saryk (medium modern of Murghab), Chodur (Tashauz) and others.
Religion:Islam is the primary religion in Turkmenistan; up to 89% of the population are Muslims, primarily Sunni Muslims. Christians make up about 9 percent of the population; 2 percent of the population share other confessions.
The State guarantees freedom of faith and conscience and equality before the law. Religious organisations are independent from the executive, are unable to intervene with state relations and conduct state duties. The public school system is independent from religious institutions.
Political system: Unitary republic. President is the head of state.
Legislature: Mejlis (unicameral parliament)
Administrative-territorial division: Turkmenistan consists of vilayats (Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, Mary), etraps, gengeshliks and populated areas of five administrative categories.
National currency: National monetary unit of Turkmenistan is “manat”; 1 manat = 100 tenge. It was introduced on 1 November, 1993. Banknote denominations are in 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 manats; coins are in 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tenge.
Flag of Turkmenistan:The Turkmenistan Flag features a rectangular green field with a vertical red stripe where five carpet patterns (gul symbolizing five regions of the country) are lined up. There are olive branches beneath guls symbolizing the eternal neutrality of Turkmenistan. A crescent and five five-pointed white stars are seen to the right of the stripe.
Emblem of Turkmenistan: Emblem of Turkmenistan is an eight-point green starburst with golden edges featuring two circles. Main elements of national richness and symbol of the state are featured on the green background of the eight-point red circle:
– In the lower part, you will see white cotton with green leaves;
– In the middle part – sheaves of wheat;
– In the upper part – crescent with five pointed stars.
The round stripe of the red disc features five main carpet guls: Akhalteke, Salyr, Ersary, Chodur, Jomud that symbolize friendship and unity of Turkmen nation. The blue circle has Yanardag – Akhalteke horse of Turkmenbashi. Classic type of the unique Akhalteke breed is a source of pride for Turkmen people.