Turkmenistan Nature

The biodiversity of Turkmenistan includes thousands of plant species, from desert grasses and saksauls to mountain forests. There are 91 mammals, 372 birds, 74 reptiles and 60 fishes presented in the fauna. The desert is not very lush with flora and fauna, but Turkmenistan’s mountain river valleys are real riches. The Badkyz, Krasnodar and Repetek Reserves have all preserved this asset.

The climate is sharp continental in Turkmenistan. The average daytime temperature in July decreases from +30-32°C to -5o C in the winter. Daytime temperatures vary significantly. In deserts the annual average precipitation in the mountains ranges from 80 to 400 mm. In parallel, hot winds and dust storms are popular in the plains.

Tourists with its special attractions, the natural ecosystem of Turkmenistan calls: massive flora – forests of wild fruits and nut trees, juniper forests along mountainsides, forests of Pistachio Savanna, forests of saxacaes, tuga flood plain; various fauna – Central Asian leopards, argalis, Kulanes, Goitered gazelles.

Caves

Turkmenistan is famous for its caves. The most known of them are the Karlyuk caves. They are located on the slope of Kugitangtau Ridge and are considered unique natural sanctuaries, the are equal to none in entire Eurasia;they are by right included in the List of the World Legacy of UNESCO. 

Lakes and Springs

Lake Sarakamysh is the largest lake of Turkmenistan. Its area exceeds 2, 200 km. Sarakamysh natural reserve was made for protection of water fowl – pelicans, cormorants and coots. The well-known Bakharden Cave hosts an underground Lake Kow-Ata.

Mountains

The Kughinang Mountains with the highest peak of Turkmenistan – Airibaba (3,137m). The Bolsoi (Big) Balkan is a mountain range in the Kara Kum Desert. There archeologists found the human remains of the Stone Age.

Volcanos

In the west of Turkmenistan there are about 30 mud volcanoes. They are of various forms and exteriors. Periodically they throw up a mixture of mud masses, gases, waters and oil on the surface. The biggest volcano is called Aligul (extinct). The most ancient is the Boyadag mud volcano.

Depressions

Yueroilan-duz is a deep drainless depression (total area 300 square km). During ancient times this place was occupied by the huge Tetis Sea. This unique depression was formed on the place of the volcanic centers which used to be active on the sea bottom. The dome-shaped and slightly extended hills representing extinct volcanoes conduits are fancifully scattered; between the hills there are solonchaks where table salt was mined. The beautiful andesite-basalt formations and weathered volcanic pillars tower there.

Tracts and Gorges

Kyrkdzhulby is a tract in the Kara Kum Desert. Its special beauty is created by high steep barchans and bright – reddish – ground shade.

Kara Kum Desert

Barchans the Kara Kum sands occupy 7 % of flat territories and are a characteristic form of sandy relief. They occur in places lacking of vegetation.

Plains and Plateaus

Missirian Plain. The remains of large ancient irrigated areas with traces of ancient irrigational structures have survived there.

Reserves and Resorts

Turkmenistan has several major reserves: Badkhyz, Repetek, Krasnovodsky and Kugitang. Ther is also a considerable number of resorts: climatic health resorts Firyuza and Bairam-Ali; balneological – Archman and Mollakara. They provide efficient treatment and prophylactics of many diseases.

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